The example of a GMO essay

Genetically Modified Organisms

Genetic modification of plants and animals continue to steer serious public debate regarding the safety of use and a multitude of ethical and moral dilemmas. However, despite ongoing discussion general public remains mostly unaware of the nature and particular aspects of the genetic engineering of organisms and its implications. Genetically engineered plants and animals can provide significant benefits regarding boost in food production and development of new drugs. Needless to say, there are also concerns regarding the environmental safety of using genetically modified organisms and risks to human health. While public campaigns tend to overemphasize health risks of genetically modified organisms, it is necessary the arguments they provide are rarely supported by firm scientific evidence. This paper will provide an explanation of the mechanism behind genetic engineering as well as provide information on controversial aspects of it.

First of all, it is necessary to understand why genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been created and what purposes they serve. GMOs can be characterized as any organism in which the genome or DNA has been intentionally modified in a way that would have been impossible under natural conditions such as recombination or mating (Key, Ma, & Drake, 2008). GM crops and animals are developed mostly because of perceived advantages and benefits of such organisms over their non-genetically modified counterparts. Application of genetic engineering is argued to result in a product with a lower price for consumers and greater benefits overall. When it comes to plants, the objective of genetic modification was to enhance crop protection from natural pests and pathogens while also increasing the yield.  

Currently, low crop yields considered to be a global challenge as pathogens, herbivorous insects and parasites undermine productivity of crops. Plants can be modified to resist insects by incorporating a gene responsible for producing a toxin that acts as an insecticide. Additionally, genetic modification of plants can help to combat abiotic stress, more specifically drought, rising temperatures and ground salinity. Genetic modification of animals perceives similar goals aiming at enhancing qualities of the livestock. Moreover, microorganisms can also be modified to suffice human needs, more specifically, some strains of bacteria have been genetically engineered to produce human insulin.

There are several techniques available for genetic modification of crops and other domestic animals. Microbial vector is one of the well-established methods genetic engineering that is using naturally occurring Agrobacterium tumefaciens bacteria to introduce genetic alterations to target organisms. Agrobacterium is a pathogen causing gall diseases in several species of plants. Unlike most of other pathogens, it transfers a portion of its genome into the host cells (Safety of genetically engineered foods, 2004). The transferred fragment of DNA are integrated into the genome of the host and can be expressed as if they were of an original host’s genome. It is possible to substitute the DNA from  A. tumefaciens responsible for the gall diseases with the DNA of interest in laboratory conditions (Dekkers & Hospital, 2002). Thus, new strains of Agrobacterium are created in order to deliver, and stably integrate new genetic materials to a range of crops the there originally susceptible to Agrobacterium

Microprojectile bombardment is a method that utilizes microscopic pellets with adhered DNA that is propelled at plant cells. While the method is rather crude and inefficient, it proved to be effective at modifying such crops as corn, rice, and other cereal grains that may not be augmented using Agrobacterium mentioned above (Dekkers & Hospital, 2002). Plant cells can be stripped off of their protective membrane using electroporation method (Safety of genetically engineered foods, 2004). Plant cells could be turned into protoplasts that can then accept new DNA from a culture medium when an electrical impulse destabilizes their membranes facilitating the entrance of macromolecules into the cell. Once transformed the cells can be regretted resulting in new transgenic plant culture. Additionally, microinjection of the DNA of interest into anchored cells is also performed. 

When it comes to genetic modification of animals scientists, employ such methods as retroviral vectors, transfection, and knock-in and knock-out technology. Some of the methods of gene engineering of animals closely resemble those used to augment plant cells (Dekkers & Hospital, 2002). Electroporation and microinjections of DNA are commonly used for means of genetic manipulations involving animals cells. Retroviral vectors as techniques involve the use of virus strains that carry genetic material for introduction into the host cell’s genome (Dekkers & Hospital, 2002). Knock-in and knock-out method characterized by replacement of existing genes by those that have been specially engineered. 

Genetically modified foods are rather common these days considering that most of the common crops have been modified to make them less prone to pests (Bawa & Anilakumar, 2012). The range of foods and products containing GMOs that are available to condiments in local supermarkets contain some of the basic foods and ingredients. In the United States almost 85 percent of domestically grown corn is genetically modified. Producers prefer to modify corn to make resistant to herbicides used to kill weeds. Soy is also among the most genetically modified crops; it was modified to have higher levels of oleic acids naturally found in olive trees. Sugar may also come from genetically modified plants that were enhanced to better resist glyphosate. Milk may also come from cows with inserted recombined bovine growth hormone that leads to increasing in milk production. Various other foods such as canola, papaya, potato, and maize commonly found in stores may have been genetically modified. The increasing number of foods that contain genetic augmentation raises concerns among consumers regarding their safety for human health. 

GM crops and domestic animals should not pose any immediate intrinsic risks to human health just because there are the foreign fragment of DNA present within them (Safety of genetically engineered foods, 2004). However, there is still little comprehensive data regarding long-term effects of consuming GMOs leading to serious speculations about GM foods. GM foods have been consumed in large quantities by millions of people around the world for almost two decades with no evidence of ill effects (Key, Ma, & Drake, 2008). Some of the studies have claimed to show an association between GM food consumption and detrimental effects to health. For example, in 1999 a study claimed that rat fed with a genetically modified potato that contained genes for specific lectin showed signs of damage to their gut mucosa. However, the study proved to be ill-designed and as such that contained numerous flaws in its design. 

The main concern of GMOs consumption rises from a possibility of intoxication by proteins produced as a result of foreign gene expression. Such intoxication can take place if a toxin coded by the transgenes would have been systematically absorbed by the host. That is why potential toxicity of proteins is thoroughly screened and assessed (Safety of genetically engineered foods, 2004). For example, GM tomatoes that contained foreign genes of B. thuringiensis resulting in expression of toxins were assessed and compared to parent tomatoes. GM tomatoes showed no serious alterations in contents of vitamins, minerals, proteins and levels of toxic glycoalkaloids (Key, Ma, & Drake, 2008). In toxicity studies on rats that were tube-fed with this GM tomatoes, toxic effects were also not observed. Thus, considering such results of tests GM and parent tomato can be characterized as equivalent. 

Another commonly expressed concern regards GMOs is the allergenicity of modified organisms. Considering that allergies to fruits and vegetables are widespread it is reasonable to pressmen that GM varieties can be potentially allergenic (Bawa & Anilakumar, 2012). There two primary factors pertaining to the fear of allergenic properties of GMOs: a chance that genes from known allergens will be introduced to crops that have not been typically considered as widely allergenic or that new allergens may be created as a result of changed expression of endogenous proteins (Key, Ma, & Drake, 2008). The allergenic potential was found in some GM crops during tests signifying the efficacy of assessment procedure that prevents potentially harmful products from being commercially realized. Thus, it is possible to say that GM can be regarded as generally safe though more studies are required considering the relative novelty of GMOs.

The development and marketing of GMOs are thoroughly regulated in the United States. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the primary governmental body responsible for regulation and approval of GM crops and domestic animals (“Food from Genetically Engineered Plants”, 2016). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the United States Department of Agriculture also partakes in an establishment of regulations regarding GMOs. Currently, there are no federal laws in the United States that specifically regulate GMOs (“Food from Genetically Engineered Plants”, 2016). Instead, these foods are regulated by norms established for conventional products. In the policy published in 1992, the FDA had established principles that regulation should emphasise the nature of the product rather than the particular aspects of its production. The safe use of pesticides including transgenic modifications is regulated by the EPA. The prevalent majority of bioengineered plants are also subject to regulation by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). 

To conclude everything mentioned above, GMOs represent the remarkable scientific achievement with the potential to greatly enhance food and drug production. Genetic modification of plants and animals can be performed through a variety of techniques. The resulting GM plants and animals have enhanced characteristics that could not occur naturally. While considered safe for human health GMOs still raise public debates. Further comprehensive studies are required to better understand the long-term effects of GMOs consumption. 

Middle Ages essay example

The Medieval Period

The Middle Ages represent one of the unique periods in the history of Western civilization. Numerous social and cultural transformations that took place during that period had defined European societies and by the extension the whole Western culture for centuries to come. During this period new schools of art and architecture have often been developed under the influence of the Christian ideology that played a dominant role. Progressive political and social changes have also taken hold following the stagnation of Dark Ages. This paper will describe the most notable social, cultural and economic characteristics of the Middle Ages. 

Charlemagne or Charles I was can be without a could consider as the forebears of the Middle Ages. As King of Franks Charlemagne continued the policy of his predecessors on expanding the territory of the kingdom (Sekules, 2001). While still using military force as his primary diplomacy took Charlemagne greatly emphasized on education and political unity (Chambers, 1995). Having united under his rule almost all mainland Europe Charlemagne began to spread universal rules of trade introducing the universal monetary system. 

The introduction of the Latin language as the standard language of educators and state officials is among the most important contributions of the Charlemagne’s rule. The scholars of that time have innovated Latin allowing travellers and traders from all corners of the Carolingian Empire to communicate freely (Chambers, 1995). Thus, European states were once united by the same language which greatly contributed to the spread of scientific ideas (Chambers, 1995). Moreover, Charlemagne also ordered the establishment of schools realising the importance of educated people for his vast empire. In addition to spreading administration unity throughout his territories, Charlemagne also helped to establish cultural and religious unity as monks and nuns followed his military advances founding new monasteries. 

The Middle Ages was also a time when new architectural schools developed. Two main classes of architecture can be distinguished during that period military and religious. New churches modelled after the Byzantine architectural style were built through the empire. Romanesque architecture style named for the obvious inspiration by Roman architecture represented a new and more progressive building technique (Janson, Janson, & Janson, 2004). Roman arch remained as the main architectural element though the structures build between 800-1100 A.D. were more elaborated and innovative. 

Gothic architecture also known as the French style was a significant departure from previous styles. This style of architecture is also known as perpendicular for a larger number of straight lines used in buildings. Structures built in Gothic style were lightweight and had wider window opening with Gothic rose window becoming the signature element of the style (Janson, Janson, & Janson, 2004). A higher number of towers and pillars were also made possible due to the use of flying buttress. Gothic style was primarily used between 1200 to 1500 A.D. 

One of the characteristic aspects of the Middle Ages is the dominance of Christianity and especially Catholicism in what Western Europe. The art of early medieval period originated from the heritage of the artistic schools of the Roman Empire but was greatly influenced by the iconographic style of the Christian church (Janson, Janson, & Janson, 2004). After the fall of the Western Roman Empire church remained the only institutions that preserved artistic and cultural heritage (Janson, Janson, & Janson, 2004). Gothic style described above bears evidence of significant Christian influence as it was primarily used in religious architecture. The most notable examples of the Christian influence on art could be seen in the monumental religious architecture of that period, for example, Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. 

In music, Christina church had presented the codification of chants of the Mass that would later become the foundational basis for numerous secular songs. Music was valued greatly and patronised by the Catholic Church leading to canonic plainsong becoming one of the dominant genres of the time. Christian tradition had also left its mark in a literature of the Middle Ages with allegory that was a combination of classical and biblical writing traditions becoming the recognised trend in culture. Allegory was also used in religious literature that dominated at the time as a mean to settle discrepancies between the New and the Old Testaments. Thus, it is possible to say the Christianity through its dominant position in the society of the Middle Ages had a great impact on arts. One of the innovations in literature made under the Christian influence was known as illuminated manuscripts.

During the last period of the Middle Ages known as the Late period, several factors have contributed to cultural transition to the period know as Renaissance. Bubonic plague has devastated large cities undermining the economy forcing people to relocate to the country (Chambers, 1995). This shift in a population has allowed surviving people to establish as the new middle class adding to changes in the social landscape that were not previously seen during the feudal order of the Middle Ages (Chambers, 1995). Reintroduction of classical text and reignited interest in learning and Antiquity. Italian writer Petrarch is argued to be among the key personalities contributing to the beginning of Renaissance by inducing the will to study classic texts. 

Several examples of art and architecture of the Middle Ages could be named as extensively influential and outstanding. Notre Dame Cathedral is one of the best examples of the Gothic architecture that is widely known around the world (Sekules, 2001). The construction of the cathedral lasted for more than a century. The rose window on the northern part of the cathedral is one of the finest examples Rayonnant style of Gothic architecture. The statue of the Virgin Mary and Child attributed to Netherlandish artist Claus de Werve represents a fine example of returning tendency for naturalism in human depiction. Moreover, the interest toward the Virgin Mary was reinforced by the Catholic church. The Book of Hours is another example of influential art. The book can be characterised as Christian and was written in Latin (Sekules, 2001). The pages of each book were exquisitely decorated in a style known as illuminated manuscript where bright colours were introduced using precious metals such as gold. 

To conclude everything mentioned above, the Middle Ages was a period in the history of Europe characterized by fundamental changes in all spheres of life. Administrative and political changes went hand in hand with cultural innovations. The Christian church has played a significant role contributing to arts and preservation of classic texts. As a result of accumulated cultural and social changes the Middle Ages gave way for innovations of the Renaissance. 

References

Chambers, M. (1995). The Western experience. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Janson, H., Janson, A., & Janson, H. (2004). History of art. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Prentice-Hall.

Sekules, V. (2001). Medieval art. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Corruption essay example

Law, Politics and Sociology perspective on ‘Corruption’

The subject of corruption sparks intense debates and calls to action around the world realising its negative effects on governance, economic and social development there is an ongoing struggle to eliminate it. Some claim that corruption may be a natural aspect of any state or organisation. Given the fact corruption of legal, political and social institutions exist in every state it may certainly lead to a such an assumption. However, the scale and impact of corruption differ significantly among the states signifying that this detrimental practice is not universal or natural and can be reduced. It is still not essentially right to assume that corruption is a part of how a state is run but more an undesirable byproduct of the combination of various factors and poor governance. This paper argues that corruption is not a part of how a state is run but rather a negative byproduct of poor governance and contributing factors. 

The interest in corruption has increased greatly following growing realisation of numerous adverse effects it has on economic and social development globally (Myint, 2000). As a phenomenon corruption is not new and can be traced back thousands of years with numerous historical records showing how corrupted state officials used their position for personal benefits. While there are several definitions of corruption, they can be generalised along the lines of abuse or misuse of power and position by state officials in order to gain private benefits. Based on the scale corruption can be petty, grand, and political (Tanzi, 1998). Political corruption has the most dramatic effect on state and society through intentional manipulation of institutions and policies (Myint, 2000). Depending of various contributing factors rates and prevalence of corruption varies greatly from country to country. (Amundsen, 1999). However, there are certain correlations between such variables as the legal system, political order,  and social institutions and resulting scale of corruption practices. 

Corruption and Legal Systems

As a general rule corruption is believed to correlate with economic development with more strong and developed economies being less prone to it while economies in developing countries are at higher risk of corruption. Despite the obvious importance of economic development legal system and the rule of law have the direct impact on predisposition to corruption (Herzfeld and Weiss, 2003). If the legal system of a country is ineffective, it will be less successful in dealing with corruption. Lack of proper legal regulation and adequate persecution and punishment for political corruption allows political elites to see the prospect of increased income from corruption to be irresistible. Corrupted political elites will in their turn use state resources to manipulate and bend the legal system to their benefit escaping from legal responsibility. 

In developing countries where legal systems are casually lacking resources to combat corruption, it may be presumed that such state of affairs is becoming a part of how a state is functioning. In Russia for example, poor awareness of the law, numerous inconsistencies among the legal acts combined with ill-defined procedures result in an underdeveloped body of legislation where it is hard to establish the rule of law (Herzfeld and Weiss, 2003). Moreover, corruption is very likely to be present in the courts with bribery becoming more common practice when there is no effective legal deterrence (Amundsen, 1999). Thus, in countries with ineffective legal systems, a vicious circle of corruption easily takes place. 

The extent to which the rule of law can be established directly impacts the attractiveness of corruption and bribery for bureaucrats. If the probability of being detected and consequently punished is low and avoidable the risks of corruption will tend to be much higher (Herzfeld and Weiss, 2003). Additionally, it is essential that corrupt bureaucrat has to be caught or reported by a non-corrupted colleagues  (Levin and Satarov, 2000). In some cases, scholars claim that rule of law alongside moral costs for actors and risk of being detected could be endogenous and depend on the prevalence of corruption in the society. 

Worth mentioning that in some countries, for example in the USA certain legalised practices may be characterised as a model of legal corruption. Legal lobbying is often defined by scholars as institutionalised form of bribery that involves collusion between parties both from private and public sectors that gain and share benefits from enacting legal norms beneficial for privat actors. Legal forms of contribution to legislators in exchange of enactment of particular legal acts can be argued as a form of institutionalised corruption that has become the part of governance. Still, such practices are rare and in most cases criticised by the civil society.

However, though corruption is intertwined with the ineffectiveness of a legal system, it does not necessarily mean for it to be a casual part of a state governance. Rates of corruption in developed countries in general tend to be significantly lower that those in developing countries. Several studies have shown a positive correlation between comprehensive anti-corruption legislation and low rates of corruption both in politics and society (Herzfeld and Weiss, 2003). Furthermore, it has been argued among scholars that common law system is a better deterrent of corruption and contributes to better governance. Several large-scale studies that accounted for numerous variables have shown that Britain and its former colonies had lower rates of corruption (Herzfeld and Weiss, 2003). One of the main variables to be responsible for that is the common law system that is traditional to the UK and some of its former colonies and dominions (Herzfeld and Weiss, 2003). Nevertheless, in countries with French-styled civil law system corruption rates are not necessarily high if the rule of law is reinforced through institutions of civil society. Thus, corruption should not be easily labelled as a natural part of governance even if it becomes regulated or legalised. Rather it is a sign indicative of flaws or underdevelopment in a legal system that allows for it to take hold. 

Political Factors

Political corruption is without a doubt among the most challenging issues, especially for developing countries. As with the legal systems discussed above political traditions and institutes play a significant role in determining the risks of corruption as well as the ability to combat it effectivelly (Amundsen, 1999). Political or grand corruption involves state decision-makers who are entitled to enforce the laws but are corrupt themselves (Amundsen, 1999). While legal and bureaucratic corruption can be deterred through administrative actions, the debilitating effects of political corruption could not be countered by administrations actions alone requiring a more complex approach (Heidenheimer and Johnston, 2002). Though political corruption can be seen in every state, it is argued that some political systems are more likely to induce corruption among state officials than other. 

Current consensus regarding the prevalence of corruption in relation to political systems postulates that democracies are less prone to corruption that authoritarian political systems. Though as can be seen by numerous scandals in developed countries including the United Kingdom, corruption is not unique or restricted to authoritarian states it rarely reaches the systemic scale (Amundsen, 1999). Thus, democratic states are believed to have a better developed legal and political framework for combating and preventing corruption (Kolstad and Wiig, 2011). One may also argue that some of the most corrupted states are at least formal democracies and as such democracy should not be considered a safeguard in dealing with corruption (Kolstad and Wiig, 2011). While such remark is correct in general, it has to be noted that democracy is endogenous and is probably affected by some third variables that define the likelihood of corruption. 

Financing of political parties also is a major factor that can contribute to corruption is some states. Activities of political parties require significant amounts of money especially during the election campaigns (Amundsen, 1999). If public funding of election campaigns is not legally regulated or possible, pressure will build up to find money in the private sector. The controversies surrounding political donations can be seen on the example of the United States and the United Kingdom (Heidenheimer and Johnston, 2002). In the UK funding of political parties have often been the subject of numerous scandals indicating that even in the developed democracies corrupted practices among politicians can be present.

Constitution factors such as territory sovereignty and composition of executive power have also been observed to contribute differently to a prevalence of corruption (Gerring and Thacker, 2004). One of the studies has demonstrated that unitary states where national government execute its control with equal sovereignty over all of the territory and countries with parliamentary politics tend to have lower levels of corruption comparing to federal states  (Gerring and Thacker, 2004). Centralist model of governance is argued to perform better with regards to corruption rates due to fewer veto options and clearly defined political and institutional hierarchy (Gerring and Thacker, 2004). Once again it can be said that corruption is not equally universal and that states with political systems emphasising the role of parlamentarism and clear insititutional hierarchy tend to have lower rates of corruption.

Social Factors

From a sociological perspective, corruption may be seen as the result o various historical and cultural factors (Torsello, 2013). Nevertheless, it is obvious that states with strong civil societies and established human rights and liberties have lower rates of corruption in comparison to the states where civil societies are struggling to take hold. The role of civil society in generating the political will is perhaps the most important and noticeable. In countries where civil liberties are not endorsed on oficial level or even intentionally suppressed, political elites have a lower motivation to combat corruptio of fear of control and punishment. 

Countries in which civil society is involved in the review and implementation of norms and regulation that allow for better control over public funding, government officials accountability, in general, tend to have more efficient governance (Treisman, 2000). Going further it is possible to assume that states, where political elite is corrupt will, resist civil society from taking part in control over the public sector. Such countries as Finland, New Zealand and Denmark that have lowest corruption rates according to the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) have strong civil societies that are constantly engaged in political, economical and legal discussions (Transparency International, 2016). 

Additionally, social traditions also contribute to the attitude toward corruption with nations where cultural and religious norms strongly stigmatise bribery government officials feel a greater fear of being exposed and punished (Treisman, 2000). For example, some scholars argue that Protestant cultures may be better suited to dealing with corruption due to higher tolerance toward challenges to authorities and more egalitarian upbringing in general (Torsello, 2013). It would be incorrect to say that corruption is a part of state functioning as it can bee seen that countries with developed civil societies are more effective at governance while having low rates of corruption. 

Conclusion

Corruption is a serious challenge and the one that is hard to overcome. However, saying that it is part of how a state is run would be incorrect. Countries with low rates of corruption are among the most developed regarding the economy and civil liberties and efficiency of legal and political systems. Corruption is perhaps an inevitable byproduct of ineffective governance and imperfection of the human nature. Nevertheless, it can be confronted and reduced through implementation of better legal regulations and control on behalf of the civil society. 

References

Amundsen, I. (1999). Political Corruption: An Introduction to the Issues. Chr. Michelsen Institute Development Studies and Human Rights. [online] Chr. Michelsen. Available at: http://www.cmi.no/publications/file/1040-political-corruption.pdf [Accessed 8 Aug. 2016].

GERRING, J. and THACKER, S. (2004). Political Institutions and Corruption: The Role of Unitarism and Parliamentarism. British Journal of Political Science, 34(2), pp.295-330.

Heidenheimer, A. and Johnston, M. (2002). Political corruption. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.

Herzfeld, T. and Weiss, C. (2003). Corruption and legal (in)effectiveness: an empirical investigation. European Journal of Political Economy, 19(3), pp.621-632.

International, T. (2016). Research – CPI – Overview. [online] Transparency.org. Available at: http://www.transparency.org/research/cpi/overview [Accessed 8 Aug. 2016].

Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. (2011). Does democracy reduce corruption?. Chr. Michelsen Institute.

Levin, M. and Satarov, G. (2000). Corruption and institutions in Russia. European Journal of Political Economy, 16(1), pp.113-132.

Myint, U. (2000). CORRUPTION: CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES AND CURES. Asia-Pacific Development Journal, 7(2).

Tanzi, V. (1998). Corruption Around the World: Causes, Consequences , Scope, and Cures. International Monetary Fund.

Torsello, D. (2013). The perception of corruption as social and institutional pressure: A comparative analysis of cultural biases. Human Affairs, 23(2).

Treisman, D. (2000). The Causes of Corruption: A Cross-National Study. Journal of Public Economics, 76(3).

Example of an essay on Economics

The essay on Economics

The economy is one of the most complex and yet easy to understand spheres of modern life. Many believe that it is not necessary for the average person in the street, and that it should be understood only by businessmen, traders and stockbrokers, but it is certainly not so. The word “economy” literally translates from Greek as “organizing and running a household”, and this definition speaks for itself. From this point of view, it turns out that a primitive understanding of the laws of economics is useful to each of us.

What is the role of economics in society? One of the well-known definitions of the concept of “economy” is the totality of relations that develop in the system of production, distribution, exchange and consumption. And if you think about it, it is much easier than it seems. Each of us participates in the process of consumption, exchange and distribution of production products. Representatives of both the most primitive and the most highly developed civilization will always have some needs – in food, water, household items, knowledge, interesting occupations. This means that people of any society cannot do without such a phenomenon as economics. Whether we like it or not, our lives are arranged in such a way that we all change something valuable in order to get something else, some object or service that is of special value to us. And for our convenience, it is important to organize this process properly, otherwise the world will simply be chaotic.

I’m sure the first association with the word “economy” that everybody has is money, and that’s fair enough. Money is everywhere around us, and we exchange it for the services and resources we need. And even if we don’t seem to have any money, it’s just an illusion. Because they are very close by, embodied in the things around us to which we can assign value and which we can sell.

Maybe a simple mortal really doesn’t need to go into details about how the value of the ruble is growing, what the interdependence of currencies is based on, and what the marketing statistics says. But in order to maintain your material condition and the proper standard of living, you need to understand at least the basic rules of purchase and sale, as well as the laws of simple transactions such as the acquisition of real estate and other property.

By the way, housewives know best about the economy. They go to the store every day, calculate the funds they need for a certain number of purchases, distribute the cost of food for cooking to all family members for a certain period of time, etc.

Similar schemes operate in any other sphere, be it medical services, entertainment, food sales or light industry goods. Of course, this is very rudely said, and yet any enterprise engaged in production or trade must calculate its resources and costs to function effectively.

Thus, the economy is one of the leading phenomena of social relations, the essential role of which cannot be denied in our lives.

Example of an essay on People and Nature

The essay on nature

Man is an integral part of nature. But in a short (historical) period of time, this axiom has undergone significant inflation – so much so that at the end of it one can safely put a question mark. So what is a human being? Part of nature? Its enemy? Or is man standing above nature?

In the short period of time in the life of the Earth, in which mankind exists, we have changed the appearance of nature more than all the natural disasters combined. We have become mighty, we have tamed the power of the atom and went into space, and it seems sometimes that we are about to comprehend all the secrets of the universe. But what do we use the power given to us? With the frenzy of fanatics, a man remakes nature, not particularly thinking about the consequences and whether he is digging a hole for himself. The “second nature” is sometimes called civilization by publicists. But sometimes it seems that Strugatsky’s pesonage is right, claiming that we are just cripples bragging about our crutches…

And tragically, and in part even ridiculous are then the attempts of mankind to save the species, which itself put on the verge of death – some of the purely practical motives (at least it can be understood), some – forcing out of their natural habitat. But how to understand, for example, the extermination of a wandering pigeon, whose number numbered billions of copies and which of pure fun completely destroyed?

A friend of mine, a doctor of biology and a friend of the famous Gerald Darrell, once told me: “Humanity and the Earth interact in the same way as the virus and the human body. We act like a disease, and like any disease, the outcome can be two. Either the Earth gets rid of us and heals…or we win. Just as AIDS defeats drug addicts.

This phrase plunged me into meditation for a long time and after a while I realized with unpleasant surprise that my interlocutor is right. Earthquakes aren’t they a fever of nature? And global warming – isn’t it the fever of the influencing Earth?

A couple of days later, I remembered that there was another form of interaction between microorganisms and the carrier. Symbiosis. And learning to be symbiotes is probably the only hope that the Earth will not “shake” us off as annoying parasites.

And yet, no matter how far away from nature we are, we are part of it. Not one year of horseback riding, I can assert it with absolute confidence. It is by coming to the stables, spending several hours in the saddle, exploring the surrounding forests and fields that I feel truly alive. It’s like nature is blowing away all the stress of a long week of work, dust, smog and mud in the metropolis. And I really don’t want to go back to my concrete bag. And isn’t that proof of what a person really is? And if we remember, how many diseases are treated by dolphins? And it is those diseases that are treated with medicines and traditional medicine. And any catwoman will say that his pet is the best “anti-stress” in the world.

Yes, we are stronger and more dangerous than any predator. Nature has given us the most terrible weapon – our mind. We only use them not more reasonable than a chimpanzee – a machine gun. And it is time, perhaps, for the strong of the world and us, ordinary mortals, to change something seriously in ourselves, until nature rejected us, as a foreign body, which she, by mistake, and gave birth to herself.